Steinernema kraussei is a cold tolerant nematode that can infect and kill insects as low as 3-5°C (37.4-41 °F) temperature. This nematode uses "cruise" foraging strategy and is most effective against black vine weevil, Otiorhyncus sulcatus, which is one of the major pests of many ornamental plants. Larvae of black vine weevil generally feed on plant roots whereas adult weevils feed on the edges of leaves and flowers.
- - Effective against the following pests
- Black vine weevil, Otiorhyncus sulcatus
- Filbertworm, Cydia latiferreana
- + Key factors for Steinernema kraussei nematode effectiveness
Steinernema kraussei infective juveniles carry species specific symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus sp. in their gut as weapon to kill their insect hosts.
- For searching insect host, this nematode uses cruise foraging strategies.
- As other species of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema kraussei nematodes also enter their insect host’s body cavity through the natural openings such as mouth, anus and spiracles. Once in the cavity, infective juveniles release their symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus sp., which multiplies rapidly in the insect blood, causes septicemia and kill its host within 48 hours of infection.
Steinernema kraussei nematodes are very good in reducing the populations of black vine weevil by infecting and killing their immature stages that cause damage to both greenhouses and nursery plants.
- The temperature range for this nematode’s activity and infection is a very wide ranging from 37.4°F (3°C) to 77°F (25°C).
- + How Steinernema kraussei nematodes work in greenhouses, nurseries and fields?
See our diagram of the nematode lifecycle
- When infective juveniles of Steinernema kraussei are applied in any setup like greenhouses, nurseries or fields, they start looking for their host using cruise foraging strategy. Once they locate their host, they enter host’s body through the natural openings such as mouth, anus and spiracles.
- Then in the body cavity (which is filled with insect blood), they release their symbiotic bacteria that multiplies rapidly causes septicemia and kill its host within 48 hours of infection. Thus they reduce the emergence of the next generation adults of their insect host.
- + Why we need Steinernema kraussei nematodes?
Steinernema kraussei nematodes work better than other nematode species against different pests at temperature as low as 37.4- 41°F (3-5°C) in both greenhouses and nurseries. They have a wide range of hosts. After application in any setup, they can actively search for their host. They can kill their host within 24-48 hours after infection. They can be easily applied using traditional pesticide application sprayers for large areas or water cans small areas.
- + Why they are safer than traditional pesticides
- they do not damage plants
- can be used and applied around children and pets
- do not cause any harm to the personnel involved in their production and application
- food products are safe to handle and eat when they are treated with nematodes
- they do not harm humans, animals, beneficial insects (ie. honey bees), microbial communities and other beneficial nematodes
- + Research Papers
- Bruck, D.J. and Walton, V.M. 2007. Susceptibility of the filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana, Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) and filbert weevil (Curculio occidentalis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 96: 93–96.
- Haukeland, S. and Lola-Luz, T. 2010. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema kraussei and Heterorhabditis megidis against the black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus in open field-grown strawberry plants. Agricultural and Forest Entomology.12363-369.